Wings Over the Aussie Outback (Photos and Stories From Australias Outback Book 4)

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Bush dance is a traditional style of Australian dance with strong Celtic roots influenced by country music. It is generally accompanied by such instruments as the fiddle, accordion, concertina and percussion instruments. Experiments with television began in Australia in the s and television was officially launched on 16 September in Sydney. While US and British television is popular in Australia, locally produced content has had many successes. Successful local product has included Homicide and Division 4 in the late s and early s, Skippy the Bush Kangaroo in the late s, Number 96 and The Box in the s, Prisoner in the s and A Country Practice — , Neighbours and Home and Away in the s and s.

Many of the shows from the mids onwards have been exported and have sometimes been even more successful abroad, such as Steve Irwin 's The Crocodile Hunter. While Australia has ubiquitous media coverage, the longest established part of that media is the Australian Broadcasting Corporation ABC , the Federal Government owned and funded organisation offering national TV and radio coverage.

The publicly funded Special Broadcasting Service SBS has a multicultural focus, broadcasting TV and radio programs in a variety of languages, as well as world news and documentary programming in English. SBS commenced as a commercial-free enterprise, but this changed in with the broadcasting of commercials between programs. Commercial broadcasters include the Seven Network , the Nine Network and Network Ten on free-to-air broadcasting to the larger cities with affiliated regional networks like Prime Television and Win Television broadcasting to regional areas.

The Australia Network , established in , is Australia's international television service, beaming to more than 44 countries across Asia, the Pacific and the Indian subcontinent. Debate about the role of the ABC continues; many assign it a marginal role, as commercial TV and radio stations are far more popular choices.

Critics [ who? American dramas and comedies rate well on Australian TV. Australia has no official state religion and the Australian Constitution prohibits the Commonwealth government from establishing a church or interfering with the freedom of religion. Historically, this proportion has been higher and a growing proportion of the population define themselves as irreligious , with There are also growing communities of various other religions.

Christianity has had an enduring impact on Australia. The Anglican Church formerly Church of England remained the largest denomination until , when it was surpassed by the Roman Catholic Church. Australian Catholics were predominantly of Irish origin until post-World War II immigration brought more than a million Catholics from elsewhere in Europe.

The Christian festivals of Christmas and Easter are national public holidays in Australia.

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Christian charitable organisations, hospitals and schools have played a prominent role in welfare and education since colonial times. Suffragette Catherine Helen Spence was not only Australia's first female political candidate, but also one of its first female preachers. Joseph , became the first Australian to be canonized as a Catholic Saint in , [] and Sir Douglas Nicholls , a preacher and Aboriginal rights activist was the first indigenous Australian to be appointed Governor of an Australian State.

Increased immigration from South-East Asia has been a major factor in this growth, but Australians of Anglo-Celtic origin have also shown increasing interest in Buddhism. Islam increased during the period from 1. The tradition and spirituality of Aboriginal Australians places great emphasis on the role of tribal Elders in passing down stories of the Dreaming , and skills and lessons for survival such as hunting and tracking. The creation story and belief system of the Aboriginal tradition, known in English as the Dreamtime , reverences the land and the animals and spirits that inhabit the land and animals.

European settlement introduced Indigenous Australians to Christianity, especially through " missions ". There was a wide range of experiences of the missions by Aboriginal people. Australia's calendar of public holiday festivals begins with New Year's Day. This is also the day upon which the Australian Federation officially came into being, however the national day, Australia Day , is celebrated on 26 January, the anniversary of British colonization.

Anzac Day , 25 April is another day strongly associated with Australian nationhood, however it more particularly commemorates Australians who fought in wars and is named to honor the soldiers of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps who landed at Gallipoli, on that same day in , during World War I. The Christian festivals of Easter and Christmas are public holidays in Australia. Christmas Day, 25 December, falls during the Southern Hemisphere summer.

Labor Day is also a public holiday, but on different days throughout the nation. On the Queen's Birthday holiday, as on Australia Day, national awards are distributed to distinguished citizens for services to the community. Contemporary Australian cuisine combines British and indigenous origins with Mediterranean and Asian influences. Australia's abundant natural resources allow access to a large variety of quality meats, and to barbecue beef or lamb in the open air is considered a cherished national tradition.


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The great majority of Australians live close to the sea and Australian seafood restaurants have been listed among the world's best. Bush tucker refers to a wide variety of plant and animal foods native to the Australian bush: bush fruits such as kakadu plums , finger limes and desert quandongs ; fish and shellfish of Australia's saltwater river systems; and bush meats including emu , crocodile and kangaroo. Many of these are still seasonally hunted and gathered by Indigenous Australians, and are undergoing a renaissance of interest on contemporary Australian menus. Early British settlers brought familiar meats and crops with them from Europe and these remain important in the Australian diet.

The British settlers found some familiar game — such as swan , goose , pigeon , and fish — but the new settlers often had difficulty adjusting to the prospect of native fauna as a staple diet. Queensland and New South Wales became Australia's main beef cattle producers, while dairy cattle farming is found in the southern states, predominantly in Victoria.

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Wheat and other grain crops are spread fairly evenly throughout the mainland states. Sugar cane is also a major crop in Queensland and New South Wales. Fruit and vegetables are grown throughout Australia. The post-World War II multicultural immigration program brought new flavors and influences, with waves of immigrants from Greece, Italy, Vietnam, China, and elsewhere bringing about diversification and of the typical diet consumed—leading to an increasingly gastronomical culinary scene. Australia's 11 million square kilometer fishing zone is the third largest in the world and allows for easy access to seafood which significantly influences Australian cuisine.

Clean ocean environments produce high quality seafoods. Lobster , prawns , tuna , salmon and abalone are the main ocean species harvested commercially, while aquaculture produces more than 60 species for consumption, including oysters , salmonoids, southern bluefin tuna , mussels , prawns, barramundi , yellowtail kingfish , and freshwater finifish. Fishing and aquaculture constitute Australia's fifth most valuable agricultural industry after wool , beef , wheat and dairy. Vegemite is a well-known spread originating from Australia.

Iconic Australian desserts include pavlova and lamingtons. Australia's reputation as a nation of heavy drinkers goes back to the earliest days of colonial Sydney, when rum was used as currency and grain shortages followed the installation of the first stills. James Squires is considered to have founded Australia's first commercial brewery in and the Cascade Brewery in Hobart has been operating since Since the s, Australian beers have become increasingly popular globally, with Foster's Lager being an iconic export. Foster's is not however the biggest seller on the local market, with alternatives including Victoria Bitter outselling it.

Billy tea was a staple drink of the Australian colonial period. It is typically boiled over a camp fire with a gum leaf added for flavoring. Wine is produced in every state, however, wine regions are mainly in the southern, cooler regions. Australia has no official designated national dress , but iconic local styles include bushwear and surfwear.

Major clothing brands associated with bushwear are the broad brimmed Akubra hats, Driza-Bone coats and R. Williams bushmen's outfitters featuring in particular: moleskin trousers, riding boots and merino woolwear. Blundstone Footwear and Country Road are also linked to this tradition.

Made from the leaves of Livistona australis , the cabbage tree hat was the first uniquely Australian headwear, dating back to the early s, and was the hat of choice for colonial-born Australians. Australian surfers popularized the ugg boot , a unisex sheepskin boot with fleece on the inside, a tanned outer surface and a synthetic sole.

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Worn by the working classes in Australia, the boot style emerged as a global fashion trend in the s. The slouch hat was first worn by military forces in Australia in , looped up on one side so that rifles could be held at the slope without damaging the brim. After federation, the slouch hat became standard Australian Army headgear in and since then it has developed into an important national symbol and is worn on ceremonial occasions by the Australian army.

Australians generally have a relaxed attitude to what beachgoers wear, although this has not always been the case. At the start of the twentieth century a proposed ordinance in Sydney would have forced men to wear skirts over their "bathing costume" to be decent. This led to the Sydney bathing costume protests which resulted in the proposal being dropped. Over time swim briefs, better known locally as speedos or more recently as budgie smugglers, became an iconic swimwear for Australian males.

Many Australians are passionate about sport, and it forms a major part of the country's culture in terms of spectating and participation. Cricket is popular in the summer, and football codes are popular in the winter. Australian traditions such as grand finals and footy tipping are shared among the codes. Australia's successes in events such as the Olympic Games , Commonwealth Games , World Cup competitions in cricket , rugby union , rugby league , field hockey , netball , and major tournaments in tennis , golf , surfing , and other sports are a source of pride for many Australians.

Sports people such as Donald Bradman , Dawn Fraser , and Cathy Freeman remain in the nation's cultural memory and are accorded high civilian honors and public status. Cricket is Australia's most popular summer sport and has been played since colonial times. It is followed in all states and territories, unlike the football codes which vary in popularity between regions. The first recorded cricket match in Australia took place in Sydney in Intercolonial contests started in [] and Sheffield Shield inter-state cricket continues to this day.

In —67, prominent cricketer and Australian rules football pioneer Tom Wills coached an Aboriginal cricket team, which later toured England in under the captaincy of Charles Lawrence. The —77 season is notable for a match between a combined XI from New South Wales and Victoria and a touring English team at the Melbourne Cricket Ground , which was later recognized as the first Test match. The English media then dubbed the next English tour to Australia —83 as the quest to "regain the ashes". Successful cricketers often become lasting celebrities in Australia.

Sir Donald Bradman , who made his Test debut in the —29 series against England, is regarded as the game's greatest batsman and a byword for sporting excellence. Internationally, Australia has for most of the last century sat at or near the top of the cricketing world. In the s, Australian media tycoon Kerry Packer founded World Series Cricket from which many international forms of the game have evolved. Events on the cricket pitch have occasionally been elevated to diplomatic incidents in Australian history, such as the infamous Bodyline controversy of the s, in which the English team bowled in a physically intimidating way leading to accusations of unsportsmanlike conduct.

Australian rules football is the most highly attended spectator sport in Australia. Originating in Melbourne in the late s and codified in , the sport is the world's oldest major football code. International rules football is a hybrid sport of Australian football and Gaelic football devised to facilitate matches between Australia and Ireland.

Rugby union was first played in Australia in the s and is followed predominately in Queensland, New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. The national team is known as the Wallabies. Despite having a relatively small player base, Australia has twice won the Rugby World Cup , in and , and hosted the Rugby World Cup. Rugby test matches are also popular and have at times become highly politicized, such as when many Australians, including the Wallabies, demonstrated against the racially selected South African teams of the s.

In , rugby league was established in Australia, by former rugby union players and supporters as a breakaway professional code. The new code gained and has maintained a wider following in Australia than rugby union, which remained amateur until the s. The sport has roots in the working class communities of Lancashire and Yorkshire in Northern England, translating to similar areas in Sydney and Brisbane. Australia's national team , the Kangaroos, has contested all 15 Rugby League World Cup titles, winning 11 of them.

Despite attracting less media attention than Australian rules football and rugby league, soccer is Australia's highest participation football code. In the Socceroos moved from the Oceania Football Confederation to the Asian Football Confederation , a much stronger confederation which has allowed the Australian team to avoid repetition of a history of missed World Cup qualifications in forced sudden-death playoffs. Australia's warm climate and long coastline of sandy beaches and rolling waves provide ideal conditions for water sports such as swimming and surfing.

The majority of Australians live in cities or towns on or near the coast, and so beaches are a place that millions of Australians visit regularly. Swimming is a popular pastime for Australians. In the early s, members of the Australian Cavill family pioneered the crawl stroke "Australian crawl" and butterfly stroke. Australians have a particular affinity for surf lifesaving , and surf lifesavers have a revered status in Australian culture. Surf Life Saving Australia has conducted hundreds of thousands of rescues around Australia. Tens of thousands of Australians compete in surf lifesaving training and competitions, such as Ironman events.

In the summer of , Duke Kahanamoku of Hawaii introduced surf board riding to Sydney's Freshwater Beach , amazing locals and starting a long term love affair with the sport in Australia. The Sydney to Hobart yacht race is a much anticipated fixture on the Australian sporting calendar. Australia won the America's Cup under skipper John Bertrand in , becoming the first country other than the United States to win the race.

Horse racing has had a prominent place in Australian culture since the colonial era, with the first spectator sports event in Australia being Lachlan Macquarie 's race meeting at Hyde Park , Sydney, in Basketball is popular in Australia in terms of participation, especially among children. Netball has the highest participation rate of any women's sport in Australia.

Established in , the ANZ Championship is the premier netball league in Australia and New Zealand, featuring five teams from each country. The Australian national netball team the Diamonds is considered the best in the world, having won 10 of 13 World Netball Championships. The Australian V8 Supercars series is steadily growing in popularity across the world, where television coverage allows.

Australia regularly raises world champion field hockey teams. Australian cyclists have won international cycling competitions, most notably Cadel Evans ' win in the Tour de France. Among young people and within schools nationwide, various forms of handball or downball games have been among the most prevalent sports games for some decades. Snow sports are enjoyed in the Australian Alps and in Tasmania. The sport remains a popular winter activity in the south-eastern states and territories. Australia has long participated in the Winter Olympics and has won medals at the Games since the s.

Increased interest and participation in American sports has led to opportunities for Australians to play at the top level in sports such as baseball , ice hockey and American football. Australian basketballers have done well at the Olympics, coming fourth four times.

The skill set of Australian rules footballers fits the mould of US National Football League NFL punters , and they stand out from their American peers with their ability to tackle returners. Australian stories and legends have a cultural significance independent of their empirical truth or falsehood. This can be seen in the portrayal of bushranger Ned Kelly as a mixture of the underdog and Robin Hood. Militarily, Australians have served in numerous overseas wars, ranging from World War I through to recent regional security missions, such as East Timor , Iraq and Afghanistan.

Australian war culture generally consists of somber reflection and commemoration, focusing on noble sacrifice rather than glory. The Australian experience of defeat in the Gallipoli Campaign , the first iconic moment in modern Australia's involvement in war, is viewed by Australians with both pride for the fighting of the soldiers, and bitterness for the perceived negligence on the part of British commanders. During the First World War, Australian soldiers were considered to be remarkably determined, united and hard-working.

Many Australians knew how to ride and shoot prior to enlistment, making them talented recruits, but they were also infamous for their lax attitude towards formal parade ground discipline, a notoriety that the Australian soldiers reveled in. From this the notion of the larrikin Digger emerged, [ citation needed ] an important part of contemporary Australian identity. Critics and scholars have sometimes scrutinized Australian culture, with aspects of it loosely criticized for being kitsch , low-brow or rooted in poor taste. The phrase " the lucky country ", coined by Donald Horne , is a reference to Australia's weather, lifestyle, and history.

Since he coined the phrase it has commonly been misapplied by both the media and general public to denote Australia's perceived fortunes. Unlike other cultures based on a nurturing landscape that they seek to protect from others, Australian settlers experienced great hardship and had to support each other in order to survive. The battle against the elements led to the nickname of a member of Australia's working class being the "Aussie battler".

An aspect of the mateship culture on language is that Australians have a propensity for the diminutive forms of names e. One result of the prevalence of the "mateship" culture is that Australian society is stringently anti-hierarchical. Australians are expected to behave with humility and not think of themselves as better than their peers. Even the most successful and beautiful Australians are eager to proclaim how ordinary they are, to the extent that two-thirds of the highest earning households define themselves as middle class, lower middle class or even working class. Most forms of address are by first name or nickname, even for authority figures.

The mateship culture combined with the original convict and then colonial culture has created an irreverence for established authority, particularly if it is pompous or out of touch with reality. Politicians, or "pollies", are generally disliked and distrusted. Voter turnout at elections had in fact been so low that compulsory voting was introduced for the federal election. Mirroring the tall poppy syndrome which brings back to Earth the high fliers, the egalitarian Australian society has a traditional Australian support for the underdog.

Related to the underdog is the belief in a "fair go", which is said to be a key part of Australian culture and Australian society. Often used to describe a fair and reasonable course of action". This is especially frequent with reference to economics issues and policies. Recent examples of this include media presentation of the treatment of illegal immigrants asylum seekers , and refugees, [] [] as well as the community campaign in support of "a fair go" for the large group of Australian doctors who have been classified as "non-vocationally registered general practitioners " non-VR GPs , [] and are subject to discriminatory pay and conditions compared to their colleagues, for identical work.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on the Culture of Australia History People.

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Mythology and folklore. Mythology folklore. Comic books. Music and performing arts. Radio Television Cinema. World Heritage Sites. Flag Coat of arms. Main article: History of Australia. Main articles: National symbols of Australia and Australian royal symbols. Main article: Australian comedy.

Main article: Australian Literature. Miles Franklin , founder and namesake of Australia's most prestigious literary award. Main article: Theatre in Australia. Main article: Architecture of Australia. Main article: Visual arts of Australia. See also: Indigenous Australian art. Bradshaws in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. Sunbaker , an iconic photograph by Max Dupain. Lonely Planet heralded Melbourne as the "street art capital of the world".

Main article: Cinema of Australia. Main article: Music of Australia. Main article: Indigenous Australian music. See also: Australian rock and Australian country music. Main article: Dance in Australia. Main article: Television in Australia. Main article: Religion in Australia. Main article: Public holidays in Australia. Main article: Australian cuisine. Main article: Alcohol in Australia. Main article: Sport in Australia. Main article: Cricket in Australia. See also: Surfing in Australia. Main article: Australian folklore.

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Archived from the original on 22 November Retrieved 26 September Retrieved 25 October Archived from the original on 12 May Retrieved Year Book Australia. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 21 November Australian Museum. Museum of Australian Democracy. Archived from the original on 2 June Retrieved 11 June Retrieved 27 June Retrieved 6 March Retrieved 12 October Arena 63 : 65— Catalogue item Retrieved 5 June Dictionary of Languages.

Bloomsbury Publishing plc. Australian Culture and Recreation Portal. Australia Government. Archived from the original on 5 February Retrieved 16 February Archived from the original on 17 February Archived from the original on 15 December Retrieved 29 January In Pierce, Peter. The Cambridge History of Australian Literature.

Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on 8 April Aboriginal Studies Press. Retrieved 11 March Retrieved 9 December Retrieved 12 September Theatre Royal. Archived from the original on 4 October Archived from the original on 21 February BBC News. Lonely Planet. Adelaide Festival Centre. Archived from the original on 29 May Archived from the original on 20 February Green bans and beyond. Sydney: Angus and Robertson. In Whitely, David S.. Handbook of Rock Art Research. Aboriginal artists of the nineteenth century. Oxford University Press, Retrieved 20 November The Canberra Times.

Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 8 December Retrieved 18 November Melbourne: Cengage Learning Australia , The Art of Australia. Melbourne: Penguin Books , Hans Heysen: Into the Light. Adelaide: Wakefield Press, Sydney: Alternative Publishing, Images by Australian Artists — Sydney: Craftsman House, Cambridge University Press , Dupain's Beaches.

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Melbourne: Penguin Books, Retrieved 14 December Archived from the original on 30 October Retrieved 27 November In Sabine, James. A Century of Australian Cinema. Melbourne: Mandarin Australia , Archived from the original on 18 January The New York Times.

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In the 12 years since that announcement, no further proof has emerged. Young has admitted only to lightening or darkening certain parts of the image. T he interior of Queensland is not an easy place to survive. Then for a few weeks—during a good year—the skies open up, water rushes down dry creek beds, and the colorless Outback turns green. Wildlife here exists on a knife edge defined in millimeters of rainfall.

White settlers rocked that balance when they introduced cows and cats in the early 19th century. They saw the landscape at its most productive and ran livestock at levels many times what the ecosystem could handle. Once-widespread marsupials, including the lesser bilby and pig-footed bandicoot, were thought to go extinct by the s. Birds like the Plains-wanderer and Bush Stone-curlew largely vanished from the interior. Other species, such as the Night Parrot, began a long, slow decline that continues today.

When explorer Charles Sturt first flushed a Night Parrot from spinifex in , during an ill-fated expedition to find an inland sea, he reckoned it was a Ground Parrot, which he knew from the coast. By the turn of the 20th century, the Night Parrot became scarce. In , collector Lawson Whitlock searched for the elusive bird in the interior and only found its scratchings in the dirt. That was when Young began looking for the bird in his spare time.

When the second dead parrot turned up in , he ramped up his efforts, with Biggs bankrolling them to the tune of several hundred thousand dollars. Young began his search by going to the spot where the bird hit the fence and putting himself in its mind. He surmised that the parrot had followed a line of trees on the west side of the fence and wondered why it would make a sharp turn in that particular place. Looking east, beyond the fence, he saw spinifex-covered hills on a cattle property known as Brighton Downs and had a hunch that the bird had been heading that way. When he mimicked it—dink dink—a pair landed nearby.

Over the next several years, he expanded his soul-sucking search to encompass all of interior Australia. In , he remarried and tried to rebuild his home life, but the bush kept calling him back. On May 26, , he finally captured photographs and video of the Night Parrot at Brighton Downs that he could present to the world unaltered.

Well, not percent unaltered. Never mind that. The point is he really did find the bird. Young refused to divulge its location to the government. Murphy would end up with a trump card, however. Apart from their love of birds, Murphy and Young had little in common. Murphy is a meticulous researcher who writes his every thought and observation in a palm-sized notebook, while Young is a gonzo naturalist who files away knowledge in his mind only.

They struck an agreement, vowing to keep the call and location of the birds under wraps until they were safe. Even the federal government and a scientific committee established in to oversee Night Parrot research were kept in the dark about the study site. Things went downhill after that. Amid temperatures exceeding degrees Fahrenheit, the two men grated on each other. One day in October , Murphy noticed something unusual: a Night Parrot feather on the ground. He and Young found 28 in total, possibly the remains of a nesting pair.

Young turned up cat scat nearby. Since Young and Murphy had confirmed the existence of only a few living Night Parrots, this meant that a significant proportion of the species had potentially been wiped out. The responsibility Murphy felt for the species now weighed even more heavily on him.


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Murphy concluded that the only way to save the Night Parrot was to wrest some control from the man who had rediscovered it. The statement was so harsh I asked him if he really meant it. In late Murphy made an end run around Young and brokered a deal with Bush Heritage Australia, a conservation group, to purchase the property where the parrots were found.

I n late April, Nick Leseberg, a University of Queensland graduate student, swatted a cloud of flies from the windshield of his truck as he drove down a bumpy track in the Pullen Pullen Night Parrot Reserve. Floods had just receded from the near ,acre parcel of the former Brighton Downs, and the flies were unstoppable: They circled the vehicle madly, waiting for a crack in the door. Along the lower reaches, the spinifex looked like a procession of woolly caterpillars. The parrots are still not easy to find. He and his colleagues keep looking for more. They have listened at dozens of sites in the area and deployed recorders at hundreds, but the birds consistently appear at just three spots.

The reserve sits in a region of the Outback known as Channel Country because of the rivulets draining from monsoonal areas to the northeast. In and , Murphy successfully tracked two birds during their foraging flights, revealing for the first time where the birds go when not huddled in their spinifex fortresses. Each evening, they head out to ephemeral wetlands known as gilgai, hunting for grass seeds. They fly up to 25 miles in a single night, a desert adaptation that makes their home range hundreds of times larger than that of the coastal Ground Parrot.

When fires start here, they wink out quickly because the spinifex occurs in isolated patches. Finally, there are few predators. Feral cats lurk, but dingoes help keep their numbers down. Introduced foxes, common in the south, are entirely absent. Bush Heritage Australia is working to boost parrot numbers at Pullen Pullen. Staff shoot and trap cats, focusing on the days right before fledging. In May, one cat was shot within 50 meters of an active nest. The team has fenced out cattle, allowing large-seeded grasses the parrots eat to flourish and flagged barbed wire to reduce collisions.

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None of these measures, however, can stop the Outback from becoming more inhospitable, as the warming climate leads to more frequent prolonged droughts. At Pullen Pullen, temperatures are predicted to rise 5 degrees Fahrenheit by , making parrots susceptible to heat-related die-offs , according to an analysis of their water needs. In late evening Leseberg and I settled onto a pimple in the landscape as the sun dropped below the horizon.

The flies took leave of us for the night, which meant that the mosquitoes were starting to come out. In the distance I heard a sound like a cell phone muffled by blanket: Dink-dink. Leseberg nodded. Night Parrots have a repertoire of at least 10 different calls. I had never seen anything like it before. He flew at high speed, glided, throwing his head in the air singing. That was when, Young told me, he snapped the first-ever clear photo of the buttonquail alive.

Until that moment, it was the only bird in Australia that had never been photographed. I asked him if he had the photo with him. I wondered if it really existed. Since his falling out with Murphy in , Young weathered another divorce and a stalled-out career. Like the Night Parrot, he was getting another chance. Young would monitor Red Goshawks in Cape York. Only seven specimens exist in collections. And he would resume work on the Night Parrot. In the past two years, Young has found three new Night Parrot nests and recorded birds calling at seven sites inside Diamantina National Park, which borders Pullen Pullen.

Young also claims to have discovered Night Parrot feathers some miles away, near Lake Eyre in South Australia, a habitat dominated not by spinifex but by a fire-resistant succulent known as samphire. During a scientific meeting in Alice Springs last year, he accused Leseberg of running over a Night Parrot nest in Diamantina.