An Exhaustively Cross Referenced Bible, Book 39 Isaiah 51 to Isaiah 62

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Revelation implies a previous knowledge of God, and cannot work upon men, except there already exist in them the sense that they and God somehow belong to each other. This sense need be neither pure, nor strong, nor articulate. But, whatever it is, the angel comes to wrestle with it, the apostle is sent to declare it; revelation in some form takes it as its premise and starting-point. This previous sense of God may also be fuller than in the cases just cited. Now Israel, also in a far-off land, were borne upon the recollection of home: and of life in the favour of their God.

We have: seen with what knowledge of Him and from what relations with Him they were banished. To the men of the Exile God was already a Name and an Experience, and because that Name was The Righteous, and that Experience was all grace and promise, these men waited for His Word more than they that wait for the morning; and when at length the Word broke from the long darkness and silence, they received it, though its bearers might be unseen and unaccredited, because they recognised and acknowledged in it Himself.

He who spoke was their God, and they were His people. This conscience and sympathy was all the title or credential which the revelation required. It is, therefore, not too much to say, as we have said, that the two pronouns in Isaiah , are the necessary premise of the whole prophecy which that verse introduces. With this introduction we may now take up the four herald voices of the Prologue.

Whatever may have been their original relation to one another, whether or not they came to Israel by different messengers, they are arranged as we saw at the close of the previous chapter in manifest order and progress of thought, and they meet in due succession the experiences of Israel at the close of the Exile. For the first of them Isaiah gives the "subjective assurance" of the coming redemption: it is the Voice of Grace. The second Isaiah proclaims the "objective reality" of that redemption: it may be called the Voice of Providence, or-to use the name by which our prophecy loves to entitle the just and victorious providence of God-the Voice of Righteousness.

The third Isaiah uncovers the pledge and earnest of the redemption: in the weakness of men this shall be the Word of God. To this progress and climax the music of the passage forms a perfect accompaniment. It would be difficult to find in any language lips that first more softly woo the heart, and then take to themselves so brave a trumpet of challenge and assurance. Speak upon the heart of Jerusalem.

But then the trumpet-tone breaks forth, "Call unto her"; and on that high key the music stays, sweeping with the second voice across hill and dale like a company of swift horsemen, stooping with the third for a while to the elegy upon the withered grass, but then recovering itself, braced by all the strength of the Word of God, to peal from tower to tower with the fourth, upon the cry, "Behold, the Lord cometh," till it sinks almost from sound to sight, and yields us, as from the surface of still waters, that sweet reflection of the twenty-third Psalm with which the Prologue concludes.

This first voice, with the music of which our hearts have been thrilled ever since we can remember, speaks twice: first in a whisper, then in a call-the whisper of the Lover and the call of the Lord. And the "heart of Jerusalem," which was with her people in exile, was like the city-broken and defenceless. In that far-off, unsympathetic land it lay open to the alien; tyrants forced their idols upon it, the peoples tortured it with their jests.

For they that led us captive required of us songs, And they that wasted us required of us mirth. But observe how gently the Divine Beleaguerer approaches, how softly He bids His heralds plead by the gaps, through which the oppressor has forced his idols and his insults. As from man to woman when he wins her, the Old Testament uses it several times. To "speak home to the heart" is to use language in which authority and argument are both ignored, and love works her own inspiration.

While the haughty Babylonian planted by force his idols, while the folly and temptations of heathendom surged recklessly in, God Himself, the Creator of this broken heart, its Husband and Inhabitant of old, stood lowly by its breaches, pleading in love the right to enter. But when entrance has been granted, see how He bids His heralds change their voice and disposition. This is the abiding attitude and aim of the Almighty towards men. His revelation, whatever of law or threat it send before, is, in its own superlative clearness and urgency, Grace. It comes to man by way of the heart; not at first by argument addressed to the intellect, nor by appeal to experience, but by the sheer strength of a love laid "on to the heart.

Is revelation, then, entirely a subjective assurance? Do the pardon and peace which it proclaims remain only feelings of the heart, without anything to correspond to them in real fact? By no means; for these Jews the revelation now whispered to their heart will actually take shape in providences of the most concrete kind. A voice will immediately call, "Prepare ye the way of the Lord," and the way will be prepared.

Babylon will fall; Cyrus will let Israel go; their release will appear-most concrete of things! Afterwards, His prophets shall appeal to outward facts; we shall find them in succeeding chapters arguing both with Israel and the heathen on grounds of reason and the facts of history. But, in the meantime, let them only feel that in His Grace they have something for the heart of men, which, striking home, shall be its own evidence and force.

Thus God adventures His Word forth by nameless and unaccredited men upon no other authority than the Grace, with which it is fraught for the heart of His people. The illustration, which this affords of the method and evidence of Divine revelation, is obvious. This proclamation of Grace is as characteristic and dominant in Second Isaiah as we saw the proclamation of conscience in Isaiah to be characteristic of the First Isaiah. The emphasis lies on the three predicates, which ought to stand in translation, as they do in the original, at the beginning of each clause.

Prominence is given, not to the warfare, nor to the guilt, nor to the sins, but to this, that "accomplished" is the warfare, "absolved" the guilt, "sufficiently expiated" the sins. The term translated warfare means "period of military service, appointed term of conscription"; and the application is apparent when we remember that the Exile had been fixed, by the Word of God through Jeremiah, to a definite number of years. It declares that Israel has suffered of punishment more than double enough to atone for her sins. This is not a way of regarding either sin or atonement, which, theologically speaking, is accurate.

What of its relation to our Articles, that man cannot give satisfaction for his sins by the work of his hands or the pains of his flesh? No: it would scarcely pass some of our creeds today. But all the more, that it thus bursts forth from strict terms of dealing, does it reveal the generosity of Him who utters it. How full of pity God is, to take so much account of the sufferings sinners have brought upon themselves!

How full of grace to reckon those sufferings "double the sins" that had earned them! It is as when we have seem gracious men make us a free gift, and in their courtesy insist that we have worked for it. It is grace masked by grace. As the height of art is to conceal art, so the height of grace is to conceal grace, which it does in this verse. Such is the Voice of Grace. But, 2.

Hark, One calling! In the wilderness prepare the way of Jehovah! Make straight in the desert a highway for our God! Every valley shall be exalted, And every mountain and hill be made low: And the crooked grow straight, And rough places a plain: And the glory of Jehovah be revealed, And see it shall all flesh together; For the mouth of Jehovah hath spoken. The relation of this Voice to the previous one has already been indicated. This is the witness of Providence following upon the witness of Grace. Religion is a matter in the first place between God and the heart; but religion does not, as many mock, remain an inward feeling.

The secret relation between God and His people issues into substantial fact, visible to all men. History vindicates faith; Providence executes Promise; Righteousness follows Grace. So, as the first Voice was spoken "to the heart," this second is for the hands and feet and active will. All things will come round to your side. A levelled empire, an altered world-across those your way shall lie clear to Jerusalem. You shall go forth in the sight of all men, and future generations looking back shall praise this manifest wonder of your God.

History must come round to the side of faith-as it has come round not in the case of Jewish exiles only, but wheresoever such a faith as theirs has been repeated. History must come round to the side of faith, if men will only obey the second as well as the first of these herald voices. But we are too ready to listen to the Word of the Lord, without seeking to prepare His way.

We are satisfied with the personal comfort of our God; we are contented to be forgiven and-oh mockery! But the word of God will not leave us alone, and not for comfort only is it spoken. On the back of the voice, which sets our heart right with God, comes the voice to set the world right, and no man is godly who has not heard both.

Ezekiel 33 - Wikipedia

Are we timid and afraid that facts will not correspond to our faith? Nay, but as God reigneth they shall, if only we put to our hands and make them; "all flesh shall see it," if we will but "prepare the way of the Lord. On the contrary, God has done like wonders within the lives of those of us who are yet young. During our generation, a people has appealed from the convictions of her heart to the arbitrament of history, and appealed not in vain.

When the citizens of the Northern States of the American Republic, not content as they might have been with their protests against slavery, rose to vindicate these by the sword, they faced, humanly speaking, a risk as great as that to which Jew was ever called by the word of God.

Their own brethren were against them; the world stood aloof. But even so, unaided by united patriotism and as much dismayed as encouraged by the opinions of civilisation, they rose to the issue on the strength of conscience and their hearts. They rose and they conquered. Slavery was abolished. What had been but the conviction of a few men became the surprise, the admiration, the consent of the whole world.

But the shadow of death falls on everything, even on the way of the Lord. By B. Death had been busy with the exiles for more than a generation. How could one be, with any heart, a herald of the Lord to such a people! Hark one saying "Call. All flesh is grass, And all its beauty like a wild-flower! Withers grass, fades flower, When the breath of Jehovah blows on it. Surely grass is the people. Withers grass, fades flower, But the word of our God endureth for ever, Everything human may perish; the day may be past of the great prophets, of the priests-of the King in his beauty, who was vicegerent of God.

All this is too like the actual experience of Israel in Exile not to be the true interpretation of this third, stern Voice. Their political and religious institutions, which had so often proved the initiative of a new movement, or served as a bridge to carry the nation across disaster to a larger future, were not in existence. Nor does any Moses, as in Egypt of old, rise to visibleness from among his obscure people, impose his authority upon them, marshal them, and lead them out behind him to freedom.

But what we see is a scattered and a leaderless people, stirred in their shadow, as a ripe cornfield is stirred by the breeze before dawn-stirred in their shadow by the ancient promises of God, and everywhere breaking out at the touch of these into psalms and prophecies of hope.

We see them expectant of redemption, we see them resolved to return, we see them carried across the desert to Zion, and from first to last it is the word of God that is their inspiration and assurance. They, who formerly had rallied round the Ark or the Temple, or who had risen to the hope of a glorious Messiah, do not now speak of all these, but their "hope," they tell us, "is in His word"; it is the instrument of their salvation, and their destiny is to be its evangelists.

To this high destiny the fourth Voice now summons them, by a vivid figure Up on a high mountain, get thee up, Heraldess of good news, O Zion! Lift up with strength thy voice, Heraldess of good news, Jerusalem! Lift up, fear not, say to the cities of Judah:- Behold, your God.

Ewe-mothers He tenderly leads. The title which I have somewhat awkwardly translated "heraldess"-but in English there is really no better word for it-is the feminine participle of a verb meaning to "thrill," or "give joy, by means of good news. The feminine participle would seem from Psalm "the women who publish victory to the great host," to have been the usual term for the members of those female choirs, who, like Miriam and her maidens, celebrated a triumph in face of the army, or came forth from the city to hail the returning conqueror, as the daughters of Jerusalem hailed Saul and David.

The verses from "Behold, your God," to the end of the Prologue are the song of the heraldess. Do not their mingled martial and pastoral strains exactly suit the case of the Return? Not mailed men, in the pride of a victory they have helped to win, march in behind Him. And, therefore, in the mouth of the heraldess the figure changes from a warrior-king to the Good Shepherd. Ewe-mothers He gently leads.

Fifty years before, the exiles left their home as we can see to this day upon Assyrian sculptures in closely-driven companies, fettered, and with the urgency upon them of grim soldiers, who marched at intervals in their ranks to keep up the pace, and who tossed the weaklings impatiently aside.

But now, see the slow and loosely-gathered bands wander back, just as quickly as the weakest feel strength to travel, and without any force or any guidance save that of their Almighty, Unseen Shepherd. We are now able to appreciate the dramatic unity of this Prologue. But its climax is undoubtedly the honour it lays upon the whole people to be publishers of the good news of God.

Of this it speaks with trumpet tones. All Jerusalem must be a herald-people.

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And how could Israel help owning the constraint and inspiration to so high an office, after so heartfelt an experience of grace, so evident a redemption, so glorious a proof of the power of the Word of God? O God, so fill us with Thy grace and enlist us in Thy work, so manifest the might of Thy word to us, that the ideal of Thy perfect kingdom may shine as bright and near to us as to Thy prophet of old, and that we may become its inspired preachers and ever labour in its hope.

Are we to take for granted that Isaiah himself prophetically wrote these chapters, or must we assign them to a nameless author or authors of the period of which they treat? Till the end of the last century it was the almost universally accepted tradition, and even still is an opinion retained by many, that Isaiah was carried forward by the Spirit, out of his own age to the standpoint of one hundred and fifty years later; that he was inspired to utter the warning and comfort required by a generation so very different from his own, and was even enabled to hail by name their redeemer, Cyrus.

The theory is also supported by arguments drawn from resemblances of style and vocabulary between these twenty-seven chapters and the undisputed oracles of Isaiah but, as the opponents of the Isaian authorship also appeal to vocabulary and style, it will be better to leave this kind of evidence aside for the present, and to discuss the problem upon other and less ambiguous grounds.

Now there is no evidence for either of these conclusions. On the contrary, there is considerable testimony in the opposite direction. The Book of Isaiah is not one continuous prophecy. It consists of a number of separate orations, with a few intervening pieces of narrative. It seems to me that those who maintain the Isaian authorship of the whole book have the responsibility cast upon them of explaining why some chapters in it should be distinctly said to be by Isaiah, while others should not be so entitled.

Surely this difference affords us sufficient ground for understanding that the whole book is not necessarily by Isaiah, nor intentionally handed down by its compilers as the work of that prophet. Now, when we come to chapters , we find that, occurring in a book which we have just seen no reason for supposing to be in every part of it by Isaiah, these chapters nowhere claim to be his. They are separated from that portion of the book, in which his undisputed oracles are placed, by a historical narrative of considerable length.

And there is not anywhere upon them nor in them a title nor other statement that they are by the prophet, nor any allusion which could give the faintest support to the opinion, that they offer themselves to posterity as dating from his time. It is safe to say, that, if they had come to us by themselves, no one would have dreamt for an instant of ascribing them to Isaiah; for the alleged resemblances, which their language and style bear to his language and style, are far more than overborne by the undoubted differences, and have never been employed, even by the defenders of the Isaian authorship, except in additional and confessedly slight support of their main argument, viz.

Let us understand, therefore, at this very outset, that in discussing the question of the authorship of "Second Isaiah," we are not discussing a question upon which the text itself makes any statement, or into which the credibility of the text enters. No claim is made by the Book of Isaiah itself for the Isaian authorship of chapters These citations are nine in number. They occur in the Gospels, Acts, and Paul.

Now if any of these quotations were given in answer to the question, Did Isaiah write chapters of the book called by his name? But in none of the nine cases is the authorship of the Book of Isaiah in question. In none of the nine cases is there anything in the argument, for the purpose of which the quotation has been made, that depends on the quoted words being by Isaiah. For the purposes for which the Evangelists and Paul borrow the texts, these might as well be unnamed, or attributed to any other canonical writer.

It is hardly necessary to add that neither is there any other question of doctrine in our way. There is none about the nature of prophecy, for, to take an example, chapter 53, as a prophecy of Jesus Christ, is surely as great a marvel if yon date it from the Exile as if you date it from the age of Isaiah. The question is not, Could a prophet have been so inspired? Or, on the contrary, in naming Cyrus does he give himself out as a contemporary of Cyrus, who already saw the great Persian above the horizon?

To this question only the writings under discussion can give us an answer. Let us see what they have to say. Apart from the question of the date, no chapters in the Bible are interpreted with such complete unanimity as Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah They plainly set forth certain things as having already taken place-the Exile and Captivity, the ruin of Jerusalem, and the devastation of the Holy Land. Israel is addressed as having exhausted the time of her penalty, and is proclaimed to be ready for deliverance.

Some of the people are comforted as being in despair because redemption does not draw near; others are exhorted to leave the city of their bondage, as if they were growing too familiar with its idolatrous life. Cyrus is named as their deliverer, and is pointed out as already called upon his career, and as blessed with success by Jehovah. Now all this is not predicted, as if from the standpoint of a previous century.

He fairly and openly predicted both; and, let us especially remember, he did so with a meagreness of description, a reserve and reticence about details, which are simply unintelligible if Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah was written before his day, and by so well-known a prophet as Isaiah.

But there is a direct appeal to the conscience of a people already long under the discipline of God; their circumstance of exile is taken for granted; there is a most vivid and delicate appreciation of their present fears and doubts, and to these the deliverer Cyrus is not only named, but introduced as an actual and notorious personage already upon the midway of his irresistible career.

These facts are more broadly based than just at first sight appears. You cannot turn their flank by the argument that Hebrew prophets were in the habit of employing in their predictions what is called "the prophetic perfect"-that is, that in the ardour of their conviction that certain things would take place they talked of these, as the flexibility of the Hebrew tenses allowed them to do, in the past or perfect as if the things had actually taken place. No such argument is possible in the case of the introduction of Cyrus.

For it is not only that the prophesy, with what might be the mere ardour of vision, represents the Persian as already above the horizon and upon the flowing tide of victory; but that, in the course of a sober argument for the unique divinity of the God of Israel, which takes place throughout chapters , Cyrus, alive and irresistible, already accredited by success, and with Babylonia at his feet, is pointed out as the unmistakable proof that former prophecies for a deliverance for Israel are at last coming to pass.


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Cyrus, in short, is not presented as a prediction, but as the proof that a prediction is being fulfilled. Unless he had already appeared in flesh and blood, and was on the point of striking at Babylon, with all the prestige of unbroken victory, a great part of Isaiah - Isaiah would be utterly unintelligible. This argument is so conclusive for the date of Second Isaiah, that it may be well to state it a little more in detail, even at the risk of anticipating some of the exposition of the text.

Among the Jews at the close of the Exile there appear to have been two classes. One class was hopeless of deliverance, and to their hearts is addressed such a prophecy as chapter "Comfort ye, comfort ye, My people. In bondage to the letter of Scripture and to the great precedents of their history, these Jews appear to have insisted that the Deliverer to come must be a Jew, and a descendant of David.

Does not such an argument necessarily imply that Cyrus was already present, an object of doubt and debate to earnest minds in Israel? Or are we to suppose that all this doubt and debate were foreseen, rehearsed, and answered one hundred and fifty years before the time by so famous a prophet as Isaiah, and that, in spite of his prediction and answer, the doubt and debate nevertheless took place in the minds of the very Israelites, who were most earnest students of ancient prophecy?

The thing has only to be stated to be felt to be impossible. But besides the pedants in Israel, there is apparent through these prophecies another body of men, against whom also Jehovah claims the actual Cyrus for His own. They are the priests and worshippers of the heathen idols. It is well known that the advent of Cyrus cast the Gentile religions of the time and their counsellors into confusion. The wisest priests were perplexed; the oracles of Greece and Asia Minor either were dumb when consulted about the Persian, or gave more than usually ambiguous answers.

It does not matter to us in the meantime what those prophecies were. It is enough that they could be quoted; our business is rather with the evidence which the prophet offers of their fulfilment. That evidence is Cyrus. Would it have been possible to refer the heathen to Cyrus as proof that those ancient prophecies were being fulfilled, unless Cyrus had been visible to the heathen, -unless the heathen had been beginning already to feel this Persian "from the sunrise" in all his weight of war?

Bible Study - Isaiah 62 - Part 2

It is no esoteric doctrine which the prophet is unfolding to initiated Israelites about Cyrus. He is making an appeal to men of the world to face facts. Could he possibly have made such an appeal unless the facts had been there, unless Cyrus had been within the ken of "the natural man"?

Unless Cyrus and his conquests were already historically present, the argument in is unintelligible. If this evidence for the exilic date of Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah -for all these chapters hang together-required any additional support, it would find it in the fact that the prophet does not wholly treat of what is past and over, but makes some predictions as well. Cyrus is on the way of triumph, but Babylon has still to fall by his hand.

List of Bible Translations & Parallel Versions to Compare with Strong's Numbers

Babylon has still to fall, before the exiles can go free. Now, if our prophet were predicting from the standpoint of one hundred and forty years before, why did he make this sharp distinction between two events which appeared so closely together? If he had both the advent of Cyrus and the fall of Babylon in his long perspective, why did he not use "the prophetic perfect" for both?

That he speaks of the first as past and of the second as still to come, would most surely, if there had been no tradition the other way, have been accepted by all as sufficient evidence, that the advent of Cyrus was behind him and the fall of Babylon still in front of him, when he wrote these chapters. But some think that we may still further narrow the limits. In Isaiah , Cyrus, whose own kingdom lay east of Babylonia, is described as invading Babylonia from the north.

If it be so, the possible years of our prophecy are reduced to eleven, But even if we take the wider and more certain limit, to , we may well say that there are very few chapters in the whole of the Old Testament whose date can be fixed so precisely as the date of chapters If what has been unfolded in the preceding paragraphs is recognised as the statement of the chapters themselves, it will be felt that further evidence of an exilic date is scarcely needed. And those, who are acquainted with the controversy upon the evidence furnished by the style and language of the prophecies, will admit how far short in decisiveness it falls of the arguments offered above.

It has often been urged against the exilic date of these prophecies, that they wear so very little local colour, and one of the greatest of critics, Ewald, has felt himself, therefore, permitted to place their home, not in Babylonia, but in Egypt, while he maintains the exilic date. But, as we shall see in surveying the condition of the exiles, it was natural for the best among them, their psalmists and prophets, to have no eyes for the colours of Babylon. They lived inwardly; they were much more the inhabitants of their own broken hearts than of that gorgeous foreign land; when their thoughts rose out of themselves it was to seek immediately the far-away Zion.

How little local colour is there in the writings of Ezekiel! Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah ; Isaiah has even more to show; for indeed the absence of local colour from our prophecy has been greatly exaggerated. We shall find as we follow the exposition, break after break of Babylonian light and shadow falling across our path, -the temples, the idol-manufactories, the processions of images, the diviners and astrologers, the gods and altars especially cultivated by the characteristic mercantile spirit of the place; the shipping of that mart of nations, the crowds of her merchants; the glitter of many waters, and even that intolerable glare, which so frequently curses the skies of Mesopotamia.

The beasts he mentions have for the most part been recognised as familiar in Babylonia; and while the same cannot be said of the trees and plants he names, it has been observed that the passages, into which he brings them, are passages where his thoughts are fixed on the restoration to Palestine.

Besides these, there are many delicate symptoms of the presence, before the prophet, of a people in a foreign land, engaged in commerce, but without political responsibilities, each of which, taken by itself, may be insufficient to convince, but the reiterated expression of which has even betrayed commentators, who lived too early for the theory of a second Isaiah, into the involuntary admission of an exilic authorship. It will perhaps startle some to hear John Calvin quoted on behalf of the exilic date of these prophecies.

But let us read and consider this statement of his: "Some regard must be had to the time when this prophecy was uttered; for since the rank of the kingdom had been obliterated, and the name of the royal family had become mean and contemptible, during the captivity in Babylon, it might seem as if through the ruin of that family the truth of God had fallen into decay; and therefore he bids them contemplate by faith the throne of David, which had been cast down.

What we have seen to be true of the local colour of our prophecy holds good also of its style and language. There is nothing in either of these to commit us to an Isaiah authorship, or to make an exilic date improbable; on the contrary, the language and style, while containing no stronger nor more frequent resemblances to the language and style of Isaiah than may be accounted for by the natural influence of so great a prophet upon his successors, are signalised by differences from his undisputed oracles, too constant, too subtle, and sometimes too sharp, to make it at all probable that the whole book came from the same man.

On this point it is enough to refer our readers to the recent exhaustive and very able reviews of the evidence by Canon Cheyne in the second volume of his Commentary, and by Canon Driver in the last chapter of "Isaiah: His Life and Times," and to quote the following words of so great an authority as Professor A. After remarking on the difference in vocabulary of the two parts of the Book of Isaiah, he adds that it is not so much words in themselves as the peculiar uses and combinations of them, and especially "the peculiar articulation of sentences and the movement of the whole discourse, by which an impression is produced so unlike the impression produced by the earlier parts of the book.

It is the same with the thought and doctrine of our prophecy. In this there is nothing to make the Isaian authorship probable, or an exilic date impossible. But, on the contrary, whether we regard the needs of the people or the analogies of the development of their religion, we find that, while everything suits the Exile, nearly everything is foreign both to the subjects and to the methods of Isaiah.

To sum up this whole argument. We have seen that there is no evidence in the Book of Isaiah to prove that it was all by himself, but much testimony which points to a plurality of authors; that chapters nowhere assert themselves to be by Isaiah; and that there is no other well-grounded claim of Scripture or doctrine on behalf of his authorship. We have then shown that chapters do not only present the Exile as if nearly finished and Cyrus as if already come, while the fall of Babylon is still future; but that it is essential to one of their main arguments that Cyrus should be standing before Israel and the world, as a successful warrior, on his way to attack Babylon.

That led us to date these chapters between and Turning then to other evidence, -the local colour they show, their language and style, and their theology, -we have found nothing which conflicts with that date, but, on the contrary, a very great deal, which much more agrees with it than with the date, or with the authorship, of Isaiah. It will be observed, however, that the question has been limited to the earlier chapters of the twenty-seven under discussion, viz.

This can be properly discovered only as we closely follow their exposition; it is enough in the meantime to have got firm footing on the Exile. We can feel our way bit by bit from this standpoint onwards. Let us now merely anticipate the main features of the rest of the prophecy. A new section has been marked by many as beginning with chapter This is because chapter 48, concludes with a refrain: "There is no peace, saith Jehovah, to the wicked," which occurs again at the end of chapter 57, and because with chapter Babylon and Cyrus drop out of sight.

Apart from the alternation of passages dealing with the Servant of the Lord, and passages whose subject is Zion - an alternation which begins pretty early in the prophecy, and has suggested to some its composition out of two different writings-the first real break in the sequence occurs at Isaiah , where the prophecy of the sin-bearing Servant is introduced.

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DPReview Digital Photography. East Dane Designer Men's Fashion. Shopbop Designer Fashion Brands. Deals and Shenanigans. Ring Smart Home Security Systems. PillPack Pharmacy Simplified. Even already He is "our peace" Lu ; Eph Delivered a little later than the previous one. The ninth and tenth chapters ought to have been so divided. The present division into chapters was made by Cardinal Hugo, in A.

After the Assyrian invasion of Syria, that of Ephraim shall follow 2Ki ; Isa , , foretell the intestine discords in Israel after Hoshea had slain Pekah A. Isa , 17, 21, and Isa Heading of the prophecy; Isa , the first strophe. Samaria --the capital of Ephraim compare as to phrase, Isa Granting, say the Ephraimites to the prophet's threat, that our affairs are in a ruinous state, we will restore them to more than their former magnificence. Self-confident unwillingness to see the judgments of God Isa The cedar, on the other hand, was odorous, free from knots, durable, and precious 1Ki This is the punishment of Ephraim's pride in making light Isa of the judgment already inflicted by God through Tiglath-pileser 2Ki A second Assyrian invasion see on Isa shall follow.

The reading "princes" for "adversaries" in uncalled for. Syrians --Though now allies of Ephraim, after Rezin's death they shall join the Assyrians against Ephraim. Philistines --of Palestine. The right hand is the south: the left, the north. The branch is elevated on the top of the tree: the rush is coarse and low. Image from unappeasable hunger, to picture internal factions, reckless of the most tender ties Isa , and insatiably spreading misery and death on every side Jer Manasseh, Ephraim --the two sons of Joseph. So closely united as to form between them but one tribe; but now about to be rent into factions, thirsting for each other's blood.

Disunited in all things else, but united "together against their brother Judah" 2Ki , Fourth strophe. In English Version "from judgment" means "from obtaining justice. So Ps Without me --not having Me to "flee to" Isa The "under" may be, however, explained, "trodden under the feet of the prisoners going into captivity," and "overwhelmed under the heaps of slain on the battlefield" [M AURER ]. Isa and Isa Isa , 11 show that Samaria was destroyed before this prophecy. It was written when Assyria proposed a design which it soon after tried to carry out under Sennacherib to destroy Judah and Jerusalem, as it had destroyed Samaria.

This is the first part of Isaiah's prophecies under Hezekiah. Probably between and B. He is the rod and staff of Mine anger My instrument in punishing, Jer ; Ps I have put into the Assyrians' hands the execution of Mine indignation against My people. But see Isa Sinners' plans are no less culpable, though they by them unconsciously fulfil God's designs Ps ; Mic So Joseph's brethren Ge ; Pr The sinner's motive, not the result which depends on God , will be the test in judgment. His plan was also to conquer Egypt and Ethiopia Isa ; Zec Vauntings of the Assyrians.

Hence the title, "King of kings," implying the greatness of Him who was over them Eze ; Ezr Is not. Not one. So Rab-shakeh vaunts Isa Calno --Calneh, built by Nimrod Ge , once his capital, on the Tigris. Carchemish --Circesium, on the Euphrates. Hamath --in Syria, north of Canaan Ge Taken by Assyria about B. From it colonists were planted by Assyria in Samaria.

Arpad --near Hamath. Samaria --now overthrown. Damascus -- Isa , 3. He regards Jerusalem as idolatrous, an opinion which it often had given too much ground for: Jehovah was in his view the mere local god of Judea, as Baal of the countries where it was adored, nay, inferior in power to some national gods Isa , 20; See in opposition, Isa ; As my hand. Agitation makes one accumulate sentences. Zion --the royal residence, the court, princes and nobles; as distinguished from "Jerusalem," the people in general. I am prudent --He ascribes his success to his own prudence, not to God's providence.

A criminal act, as Jehovah Himself had appointed the boundaries of the nations De No resistance was offered me, of deed, or even word. Shall the instrument boast against Him who uses it? Through free in a sense, and carrying out his own plans, the Assyrian was unconsciously carrying out God's purposes. The robust and choice soldiers of Assyria Ps , where "fattest" answers in the parallelism to "chosen," or "young men," Margin.

Fulfilled Isa So in Isa , Margin; Isa Jehovah, who is a light to Israel, shall be the "fire" De ; Heb that shall ignite the "thorns," the Assyrians, like dry fuel, a ready prey to flame. Figurative for Sennacherib's mighty army. Perhaps alluding to his own boasting words about to be uttered Isa , "I will enter the forest of his Carmel.

The effect on the "remnant" contrasted with the Assyrian remnant, Isa ; namely, those who shall be left after the invasion of Sennacherib, will be a return from dependence on external idolatrous nations, as Assyria and Egypt 2Ki ; , to the God of the theocracy; fulfilled in part in the pious Hezekiah's days; but from the future aspect under which Paul, in Ro , 28 compare "short work" with "whole work," Isa , here , regards the whole prophecy, the "remnant," "who stay upon the Lord," probably will receive their fullest realization in the portion of Jews left after that Antichrist shall have been overthrown, who shall "return" unto the Lord Isa ; ; Zec , 10; , 3; Zep As the Assyrians in Sennacherib's reign did not carry off Judah captive, the returning "remnant" cannot mainly refer to this time.

The reason is added, Because "the consumption fully completed destruction is decreed literally, decided on, brought to an issue , it overfloweth Isa ; with justice "; that is, the infliction of just punishment Isa [M AURER ].

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But the Septuagint, "in the whole habitable world. Therefore --Return to the main proposition, Assyria's ultimate punishment, though employed as God's "rod" to chastise Judea for a time. O my people --God's tenderness towards His elect nation. Implying, too, as Israel was nevertheless delivered from them, so now it would be from the Assyrian Sennacherib. His "rod" on the Assyrian Isa , 26 stands in bold contrast to the Assyrian used as a "rod" to strike others Isa Judah was still tributary to Assyria; Hezekiah had not yet revolted, as he did in the beginning of Sennacherib's reign.

M AURER not so well translates, "Because of the fatness"; an image of the Assyrians fierce and wanton pride drawn from a well-fed bull tossing off the yoke De So Isa above, and Isa , " fat ones. Onward gradual march of Sennacherib's army towards Jerusalem, and the panic of the inhabitants vividly pictured before the eyes.

Aiath --same as Ai Jos ; Ne In the north of Benjamin; so the other towns also; all on the line of march to Jerusalem. Michmash --nine miles northeast of Jerusalem. Ramah --near Geba; seven miles from Jerusalem. Anathoth --three miles from Jerusalem in Benjamin; the birthplace of Jeremiah. Others translate, Answer her, O Anathoth. Madmenah --not the city in Simeon Jos , but a village near Jerusalem.

His "shaking his hand" in menace implies that he is now at Nob, within sight of Jerusalem. From the local and temporary national deliverance the prophet passes by the law of suggestion in an easy transition to the end of all prophecy--the everlasting deliverance under Messiah's reign, not merely His first coming, but chiefly His second coming. The language and illustrations are still drawn from the temporary national subject, with which he began, but the glories described pertain to Messiah's reign.

Lu proves this Isa ; compare Job , 8 ; see on Isa Branch --Scion. He is nevertheless also the "root" Isa ; Re ; Seven gifts of the Holy Spirit are specified, to imply that the perfection of them was to be in Him. Compare "the seven Spirits" Re , that is, the Holy Ghost in His perfect fulness: seven being the sacred number. The prophets had only a portion out of the " fulness " in the Son of God Joh ; ; Col Discernment and discrimination Mt ; Joh Counsellor Isa The knowledge of Him gives us true knowledge Eph The first step towards true "knowledge" Job ; Ps Herein Messiah is represented a just Judge and Ruler De , It is at the same time implied that "the earth" will be extraordinarily wicked when He shall come to judge and reign.

His reign shall therefore be ushered in with judgments on the apostates Ps ; Lu ; Re He as the Word of God Re comes to strike that blow which shall decide His claim to the kingdom, previously usurped by Satan, and "the beast" to whom Satan delegates his power. It will be a day of judgment to the Gentile dispensation, as the first coming was to the Jews. Compare a type of the "rod" Nu The antitypical High Priest Ex The girdle secures firmly the rest of the garments 1Pe So "truth" gives firm consistency to the whole character Eph In Isa , "righteousness" is His breastplate.

These may be figures for men of corresponding animal-like characters Eze ; ; Jer ; ; Mt ; Lu Still a literal change in the relations of animals to man and each other, restoring the state in Eden, is a more likely interpretation. Compare Ge , 20, with Ps , which describes the restoration to man, in the person of "the Son of man," of the lost dominion over the animal kingdom of which he had been designed to be the merciful vicegerent under God, for the good of his animal subjects Ro The Hebrew means a kind of adder, more venomous than the asp; B OCHART supposes the basilisk to be meant, which was thought to poison even with its breath.

The seat of government and of Messiah's throne is put for the whole earth Jer As Isa describe the personal qualities of Messiah, and Isa the regenerating effects of His coming on creation, so Isa the results of it in the restoration of His people, the Jews, and the conversion through them of the Gentiles. They shall give in their allegiance to the Divine King Isa ; ; Zec Compare Ro , which quotes this passage, "In Him shall the Gentiles trust. The sanctuary in the temple of Jerusalem was "the resting-place of the ark and of Jehovah. Therefore the coming restoration of the Jews is to be distinct from that after the Babylonish captivity, and yet to resemble it.

The first restoration was literal, therefore so shall the second be; the latter, however, it is implied here, shall be much more universal than the former Isa ; , 17, 18; Eze ; Ho ; Am , 15 ; Mic , 7; Zep , 20; Zec ; Jer As to the "remnant" destined by God to survive the judgments on the nation, compare Jer Pathros --one of the three divisions of Egypt, Upper Egypt. Elam --Persia, especially the southern part of it now called Susiana. The seat of the first Chaldean empire was in the south, towards the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates.

In the first restoration Judah alone was restored, with perhaps some few of Israel the ten tribes : in the future restoration both are expressly specified Eze ; Jer To Israel are ascribed the "outcasts" masculine ; to Judah the "dispersed" feminine , as the former have been longer and more utterly castaways though not finally than the latter Joh The masculine and feminine conjoined express the universality of the restoration. Joshua had sprung from, and resided among the Ephraimites Nu ; Jos ; the sanctuary was with them for a time Jos The parallelism "the envy of Ephraim," namely, against Judah, requires this, as also what follows; namely, "Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not vex Ephraim" Eze , 17, With united forces they shall subdue their foes Am The image is the more apt, as the Hebrew for "shoulders" in Nu is used also of a maritime coast "side of the sea": Hebrew, "shoulder of the sea," Margin.

They shall make a sudden victorious descent upon their borders southwest of Judea. Ammon --east of Judea, north of Moab, between the Arnon and Jabbok. There shall be a second exodus, destined to eclipse even the former one from Egypt in its wonders. So the prophecies elsewhere Ps ; Ex ; Zec The same deliverance furnishes the imagery by which the return from Babylon is described Isa , The Hebrew for "mighty" means terrible.


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Egypt -- Isa , 11; , Just as Miriam, after the deliverance of the Red Sea Isa , celebrated it with an ode of praise Ex The repetition of the name denotes emphasis, and the unchangeableness of God's character. The idea of salvation was peculiarly associated with the feast of tabernacles see Isa Hence the cry "Hosanna," " Save, we beseech thee, " that accompanied Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem on that day the fifteenth of the seventh month Mt ; compare with Ps , 26 ; the earnest of the perfected "salvation" which He shall bring to His people at His glorious second appearance at Jerusalem Heb As the Jew was reminded by the feast of tabernacles of his wanderings in tents in the wilderness, so the Jew-Gentile Church to come shall call to mind, with thanksgiving, the various past ways whereby God has at last brought them to the heavenly "city of habitation" Ps On the last day of the feast of tabernacles the Jews used to bring water in a golden pitcher from the fountain of Siloam, and pour it, mingled with wine, on the sacrifice on the altar, with great rejoicing.

This is the allusion in Jesus' words on "the last day of the feast" Joh , The pouring out of water indicated repentance 1Sa ; compare, as to the Jews' repentance hereafter, Zec There shall be a latter outpouring of the Spirit like the former one on pentecost Joe The predictions as to foreign nations are for the sake of the covenant people, to preserve them from despair, or reliance on human confederacies, and to strengthen their faith in God: also in order to extirpate narrow-minded nationality: God is Jehovah to Israel, not for Israel's sake alone, but that He may be thereby Elohim to the nations.

These prophecies are in their right chronological place, in the beginning of Hezekiah's reign; then the nations of Western Asia, on the Tigris and Euphrates, first assumed a most menacing aspect. It is remarkable that Isaiah does not foretell here the Jews' captivity in Babylon, but presupposes that event, and throws himself beyond, predicting another event still more future, the overthrow of the city of Israel's oppressors. It was now one hundred seventy-four years before the event. They rejoiced in their own highness, but it was His that they were unconsciously glorifying.

They --namely, "Jehovah," and the armies which are "the weapons of His indignation. Type of the future "day of wrath" Re Babylon was taken by surprise on the night of Belshazzar's impious feast Da Hence the sudden fainting and melting of hearts. Also answering to the cruelty in the strict sense of Babylon towards others Isa now about to be visited on itself.

The language of Isa can only primarily and partially apply to Babylon; fully and exhaustively, the judgments to come, hereafter, on the whole earth. Compare Isa with Mt ; Re The sins of Babylon, arrogancy Isa ; Isa ; , 8 , cruelty, false worship Jer , persecution of the people of God Isa , are peculiarly characteristic of the Antichristian world of the latter days Da ; Re , 6; , 7, , There may be a literal fulfilment finally, shadowed forth under this imagery Re See on Job Image for mighty revolutions Isa ; ; Hab , 10; Hag , 7; Re Ps , 9.

Medes -- Isa ; Jer , At that time they were subject to Assyria; subsequently Arbaces, satrap of Media, revolted against the effeminate Sardanapalus, king of Assyria, destroyed Nineveh, and became king of Media, in the ninth century B. A curious confirmation of this prophecy. Gomorrah --as utterly Jer ; ; Am Taken by Cyrus, by clearing out the canal made for emptying the superfluous waters of the Euphrates, and directing the river into this new channel, so that he was able to enter the city by the old bed in the night.

Literally fulfilled. Arabian pitch tent --Not only shall it not be a permanent residence, but not even a temporary resting-place. The Arabs, through dread of evil spirits, and believing the ghost of Nimrod to haunt it, will not pass the night there compare Isa Devil-worshippers, who dance amid the ruins on a certain night [J. W OLFF ]. Fable gave them wings, because they stand with much of the body elevated and then dart swiftly.

The Babylonian king, the subject of this prediction, is Belshazzar, as representative of the kingdom Da Their restoration is grounded on their election see Ps An earnest of the future effect on the heathen world of the Jews' spiritual restoration Isa , 5, 10; Mic ; Zec ; Ro Of the whole Gentile world ultimately Isa ; ; Here a taunting song of triumph Mic ; Hab The mystical Babylon is ultimately meant. But the old translators read differently in the Hebrew, "oppression," which the parallelism favors compare Isa But the parallelism is better in English Version.

Probably a kind of evergreen. At thy fall Ps , Hades the Amenthes of Egypt , the unseen abode of the departed; some of its tenants, once mighty monarchs, are represented by a bold personification as rising from their seats in astonishment at the descent among them of the humbled king of Babylon. The idea of wickedness on a gigantic scale is included Eze ; Mt , These being magnified by the imagination of the living into gigantic stature, gave their name to giants in general Ge ; ; Eze , Thence, as the giant Rephaim of Canaan were notorious even in that guilty land, enormous wickedness became connected with the term.

So the Rephaim came to be the wicked spirits in Gehenna, the lower of the two portions into which Sheol is divided.

They taunt him and derive from his calamity consolation under their own Eze Rephaim, "the dead," may come from a Hebrew root, meaning similarly "feeble," "powerless. Appropriate here; instead of the crimson coverlet, over thee shall be "worms. The language is so framed as to apply to the Babylonian king primarily, and at the same time to shadow forth through him, the great final enemy, the man of sin, Antichrist, of Daniel, St.

Paul, and St. John; he alone shall fulfil exhaustively all the lineaments here given. Lucifer --"day star. God --In Da , "stars" express earthly potentates. In Da , and 2Th , this is attributed to Antichrist. However, the parallelism supports the notion that the Babylonian king expresses himself according to his own, and not Jewish opinions so in Isa thus "mount of the congregation" will mean the northern mountain perhaps in Armenia fabled by the Babylonians to be the common meeting-place of their gods.

So the Greeks, in the northern Olympus. The Persian followers of Zoroaster put the Ai-bordsch in the Caucasus north of them. Perhaps there is a reference to the cloud, the symbol of the divine presence Isa ; Ex So this tallies with 2Th , " above all that is called God"; as here " above. Thus the reference is to the sides of the sepulcher round which the dead were arranged in niches. All --that is, This is the usual practice. To be excluded from the family sepulcher was a mark of infamy Isa ; Jer ; 1Ki ; 2Ch ; ; The dynasty shall cease Da Compare as to Babylon in general, Jer This would comfort the Jews when captives in Babylon, being a pledge that God, who had by that time fulfilled the promise concerning Sennacherib though now still future , would also fulfil His promise as to destroying Babylon, Judah's enemy.

In this verse the Lord's thought purpose stands in antithesis to the Assyrians' thoughts Isa See Isa , 11; 1Sa ; Mal That --My purpose, namely, "that. God regarded Judah as peculiarly His. This is. Da To comfort the Jews, lest they should fear that people; not in order to call the Philistines to repentance, since the prophecy was probably never circulated among them. They had been subdued by Uzziah or Azariah 2Ch ; but in the reign of Ahaz 2Ch , they took several towns in south Judea. Now Isaiah denounces their final subjugation by Hezekiah. Ahaz died B. Probably it was in this year that the Philistines threw off the yoke put on them by Uzziah.

Palestina --literally, "the land of sojourners. Uzziah was doubtless regarded by the Philistines as a biting "serpent. Compare "first-born of death" Job , for the most fatal death. The Jews, heretofore exposed to Philistine invasions and alarms, shall be in safety. Compare Ps , "Children of the needy," expressing those "needy in condition. He shall slay --Jehovah shall. The change of person, "He" after "I," is a common Hebraism.

On "alone," compare Ps ; Ho Ps , 5; L OWTH thinks it was delivered in the first years of Hezekiah's reign and fulfilled in the fourth when Shalmaneser, on his way to invade Israel, may have seized on the strongholds of Moab.

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Moab probably had made common cause with Israel and Syria in a league against Assyria. Hence it incurred the vengeance of Assyria. Jeremiah has introduced much of this prophecy into his forty-eighth chapter. Ar --meaning in Hebrew, "the city"; the metropolis of Moab, on the south of the river Arnon. Kir --literally, "a citadel"; not far from Ar, towards the south.

He --Moab personified. Same town as Dimon Isa The town Nebo was adjacent to the mountain, not far from the northern shore of the Dead Sea. There it was that Chemosh, the idol of Moab, was worshipped compare De Medeba --south of Heshbon, on a hill east of Jordan. To cut one's beard off is the greatest mark of sorrow and mortification compare Jer Heshbon --an Amorite city, twenty miles east of Jordan; taken by Moab after the carrying away of Israel compare Jer Elealeh --near Heshbon, in Reuben.

Jahaz --east of Jordan, in Reuben. Near it Moses defeated Sihon. Even the armed men, instead of fighting in defense of their land, shall join in the general cry. My --The prophet himself is moved with pity for Moab. Ministers, in denouncing the wrath of God against sinners, should do it with tender sorrow, not with exultation. The expression "three years old," implies one at its full vigor Ge , as yet not brought under the yoke; as Moab heretofore unsubdued, but now about to be broken. So Jer ; Ho Luhith --a mountain in Moab.

Horonaim --a town of Moab not far from Zoar Jer It means "the two poles," being near caves. For --the cause of their flight southwards 2Ki , Therefore --because of the devastation of the land. Eglaim -- Eze , En-eglaim. Beer-elim --literally, "the well of the Princes"-- so Nu Beyond the east borders of Moab. Dimon --same as Dibon Isa Its waters are the Arnon. David probably imposed this tribute before the severance of Judah and Israel 2Sa Therefore Moab is recommended to gain the favor and protection of Judah, by paying it to the Jewish king.

Type of the need of submitting to Messiah Ps ; Ro The country around was a vast common "wilderness" or open pasturage, to which the Moabites had fled on the invasion from the west Isa Compare Isa ; De Give shelter to the Jewish outcasts who take refuge in thy land Isa , 4 ; so "mercy" will be shown thee in turn by whatever king sits on the "throne" of "David" Isa Isaiah foresees that Moab will be too proud to pay the tribute, or conciliate Judah by sheltering its outcasts Isa ; therefore judgment shall be executed.

However, as Moab just before is represented as itself an outcast in Idumea, it seems incongruous that it should be called on to shelter Jewish outcasts. So that it seems rather to foretell the ruined state of Moab when its people should beg the Jews for shelter, but be refused for their pride. If Judah shelters the suppliant Moab, allowing him to remain in Idumea, a blessing will redound to Judah itself and its "throne.

We --Jews. We reject Moab's supplication for his pride. Therefore --all hope of being allowed shelter by the Jews being cut off. Jeremiah, in the parallel place Jer , renders it "men," who are the moral foundations or stay of a city. Kirhareseth --literally, "a citadel of brick. So Jeremiah in the parallel place Jer , M AURER thinks the following words require rather the rendering, "Its the vine of Sibmah shoots the wines got from them overpowered by its generous flavor and potency the lords of the nations" Ge , 12, Jazer --They the vine shoots reached even to Jazer, fifteen miles from Heshbon.

I --will bewail for its desolation, though I belong to another nation see on Isa In the parallel passage Jer the words substantially express the same sense. There shall be no harvest or vintage owing to the desolation; therefore no "gladness. Isa ; compare Isa ; Jer B ARNES translates it, " formerly " in contrast to "but now " Isa : heretofore former prophecies Ex ; Nu have been given as to Moab, of which Isaiah has given the substance: but now a definite and steady time also is fixed.

Fulfilled about the time when the Assyrians led Israel into captivity. The accurate particularity of specification of the places three thousand years ago, confirmed by modern research, is a strong testimony to the truth of prophecy. Already, Tiglath-pileser had carried away the people of Damascus to Kir, in the fourth year of Ahaz 2Ki ; but now in Hezekiah's reign a further overthrow is foretold Jer ; Zec This prophecy was, doubtless, given previously in the first years of Hezekiah when the foreign nations came into nearer collision with Judah, owing to the threatening aspect of Assyria.

Damascus --put before Israel Ephraim, Isa , which is chiefly referred to in what follows, because it was the prevailing power in the league; with it Ephraim either stood or fell Isa So "cities with their villages" Jos ; "Heshbon and all her cities" Jos Israel --They shall meet with the same fate as Israel, their ally. Rephaim --a fertile plain at the southwest of Jerusalem toward Beth-lehem and the country of the Philistines 2Sa Hence the expression, "image of the grove," is explained 2Ki But a few cities out of many shall be left to Israel, by the purpose of God, executed by the Assyrian.

God of. In the day. The parallel clause, "Make. As soon as thou plantest, it grows. The connection of this fragment with what precedes is: notwithstanding the calamities coming on Israel, the people of God shall not be utterly destroyed Isa , 13 ; the Assyrian spoilers shall perish Isa , The prophet in vision perceives the vast and mixed Assyrian hosts Hebrew, "many peoples, " see on Isa : on the hills of Judah so "mountains," Isa : but at the "rebuke" of God, they shall "flee as chaff.

A general declaration of the doom that awaits the foes of God's people Isa Isaiah announces the overthrow of Sennacherib's hosts and desires the Ethiopian ambassadors, now in Jerusalem, to bring word of it to their own nation; and he calls on the whole world to witness the event Isa As Isa announced the presence of the foe, so Isa foretells his overthrow. Woe --The heading in English Version, "God will destroy the Ethiopians," is a mistake arising from the wrong rendering "Woe," whereas the Hebrew does not express a threat, but is an appeal calling attention Isa ; Zec : "Ho.

The armies referred to are those of Tirhakah, advancing to meet the Assyrians Isa The Hebrew for "wings" is the same as for the idol Cneph, which was represented in temple sculptures with wings Ps This island region was probably the chief part of Queen Candace's kingdom Ac For "beyond" others translate less literally "which borderest on. Go --Isaiah tells them to take back the tidings of what God is about to do Isa against the common enemy of both Judah and Ethiopia. The Hebrew for "strong" is literally, "drawn out" Margin; Ps ; Ec S MITH translates, "tall and comely"; literally, "extended" Isa , "men of stature" and polished the Ethiopians had "smooth, glossy skins".

The Jews who, because of God's plague, made others to fear the like De God puts the "terror" of His people into the surrounding nations at the first Ex ; Jos ; so it shall be again in the latter days Zec , 3. Hence, actively, it means here "a people meting out, --an all-destroying people"; which suits the context better than "meted," passively [M AURER ]. H ORSLEY , understanding it of the Jews, translates it, "Expecting, expecting in a continual attitude of expectation of Messiah and trampled under foot"; a graphic picture of them. Most translate, of strength, strength from a root, to brace the sinews , that is, a most powerful people.

He will "lift up an ensign," calling the Assyrian motley hosts together Isa on "the mountains" round Jerusalem, to their own destruction. This the eighteenth chapter declares the coming overthrow of those armies whose presence is announced in Isa ,